2. (a) Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons;
Separation of detainees
2. (a) Accused persons shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be segregated from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons;
(b) Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible for adjudication.
States Parties shall ensure that:
c) Every child deprived of liberty shall be treated with humanity and respect for the inherent dignity of the human person, and in a manner which takes into account the needs of persons of his or her age. In particular, every child deprived of liberty shall be separated from adults unless it is considered in the child's best interest not to do so and shall have the right to maintain contact with his or her family through correspondence and visits, save in exceptional circumstances;
Accused migrant workers and members of their families shall, save in exceptional circumstances, be separated from convicted persons and shall be subject to separate treatment appropriate to their status as unconvicted persons. Accused juvenile persons shall be separated from adults and brought as speedily as possible for adjudication.
Any migrant worker or member of his or her family who is detained in a State of transit or in a State of employment for violation of provisions relating to migration shall be held, in so far as practicable, separately from convicted persons or persons detained pending trial.
During any period of imprisonment in pursuance of a sentence imposed by a court of law, the essential aim of the treatment of a migrant worker or a member of his or her family shall be his or her reformation and social rehabilitation. Juvenile offenders shall be separated from adults and be accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status.
The different categories of prisoners shall be kept in separate institutions or parts of institutions taking account of their sex, age, criminal record, the legal reason for their detention and the necessities of their treatment. Thus,
(a) Men and women shall so far as possible be detained in separate institutions; in an institution which receives both men and women the whole of the premises allocated to women shall be entirely separate;
(b) Untried prisoners shall be kept separate from convicted prisoners;
(c) Persons imprisoned for debt and other civil prisoners shall be kept separate from persons imprisoned by reason of a criminal offence;
(d) Young prisoners shall be kept separate from adults.
2. These prisons do not need to provide the same degree of security for every group. It is desirable to provide varying degrees of security according to the needs of different groups. Open prisons, by the very fact that they provide no physical security against escape but rely on the self-discipline of the inmates, provide the conditions most favourable to the rehabilitation of carefully selected prisoners.
1. The purposes of classification shall be:
(a) To separate from others those prisoners who, by reason of their criminal records or characters, are likely to exercise a bad influence;
(b) To divide the prisoners into classes in order to facilitate their treatment with a view to their social rehabilitation.
2. So far as possible, separate prisons or separate sections of a prison shall be used for the treatment of different classes of prisoners.
Prison administrators shall develop and implement classification methods addressing the gender-specific needs and circumstances of women prisoners to ensure appropriate and individualized planning and implementation towards those prisoners‟ early rehabilitation, treatment and reintegration into society.
The gender-sensitive risk assessment and classification of prisoners shall:
(a) Take into account the generally lower risk posed by women prisoners to others, as well as the particularly harmful effects that high security measures and increased levels of isolation can have on women prisoners;
(b) Enable essential information about women‟s backgrounds, such as violence they may have experienced, history of mental disability and substance abuse, as well as parental and other caretaking responsibilities, to be taken into account in the allocation and sentence planning process;
(c) Ensure that women‟s sentence plans include rehabilitative programmes and services that match their gender-specific needs;
(d) Ensure that those with mental health care needs are housed in accommodation which is not restrictive, and at the lowest possible security level, and receive appropriate treatment, rather than being placed in higher security level facilities solely due to their mental health problems.
As soon as possible after the moment of admission, each juvenile should be interviewed, and a psychological and social report identifying any factors relevant to the specific type and level of care and programme required by the juvenile should be prepared. This report, together with the report prepared by a medical officer who has examined the juvenile upon admission, should be forwarded to the director for purposes of determining the most appropriate placement for the juvenile within the facility and the specific type and level of care and programme required and to be pursued. When special rehabilitative treatment is required, and the length of stay in the facility permits, trained personnel of the facility should prepare a written, individualized treatment plan specifying treatment objectives and time-frame and the means, stages and delays with which the objectives should be approached.
The detention of juveniles should only take place under conditions that take full account of their particular needs, status and special requirements according to their age, personality, sex and type of offence, as well as mental and physical health, and which ensure their protection from harmful influences and risk situations. The principal criterion for the separation of different categories of juveniles deprived of their liberty should be the provision of the type of care best suited to the particular needs of the individuals concerned and the protection of their physical, mental and moral integrity and well-being.
In all detention facilities juveniles should be separated from adults, unless they are members of the same family. Under controlled conditions, juveniles may be brought together with carefully selected adults as part of a special programme that has been shown to be beneficial for the juveniles concerned.
Open detention facilities for juveniles should be established. Open detention facilities are those with no or minimal security measures. The population in such detention facilities should be as small as possible. The number of juveniles detained in closed facilities should be small enough to enable individualized treatment. Detention facilities for juveniles should be decentralized and of such size as to facilitate access and contact between the juveniles and their families. Small-scale detention facilities should be established and integrated into the social, economic and cultural environment of the community.
Children should be appropriately separated in detention, including but not limited to children in need of care and those in conflict with the law, children awaiting trial and convicted children, boys and girls, younger children and older children, and children with physical and mental disabilities and those without. Children detained under criminal legislation should never be detained together with adult detainees. The Special Rapporteur also notes that the permitted exception to the separation of children from adults provided for in article 37 (c) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child should be interpreted sensu stricto. The best interests of the child should not be defined in accordance to the convenience of the State. [...]
With regard to conditions during detention, the Special Rapporteur calls upon all States:
(a) To separate children and adults in all places of detention and, when in the best interests of the child, to hold children and adults together during daytime, and only under strict supervision;
(b) To consider case-by-case assessment to decide whether it is appropriate for a particular inmate to be transferred to an adult institution after reaching the age of majority
Article 10, paragraph 2(a) provides for the segregation, save in exceptional circumstances, of accused persons from convicted ones. Such segregation is required in order to emphasize their status as unconvicted persons who at the same time enjoy the right to be presumed innocent as stated in article 14, paragraph 2.
[...] Under article 10, paragraph 3, juvenil offenders shall be segregate from adults and accorded treatment appropriate to their age and legal status in so far as conditions of detention are concerned
With regard to women, girls, and lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender persons in detention, the Special Rapporteur calls on all States to:
[...] (g) Ensure that male and female detainees are separated, including during transport; that female detainees are supervised and attended to only by female staff; and that escorts of female prisoners at least include female officers; [...]
In deciding to accommodate prisoners in particular prisons or in particular sections of a prison due account shall be taken of the need to detain:
a. untried prisoners separately from sentenced prisoners;
b. male prisoners separately from females; and
c. young adult prisoners separately from older prisoners.
Where children are detained in a prison they shall be kept in a part of the prison that is separate from that used by adults unless it is considered that this is against the best interests of the child.
As soon as possible after admission, prisoners shall be assessed to determine:
a. the risk that they would present to the community if they were to escape;
b. the risk that they will try to escape either on their own or with external assistance.
Each prisoner shall then be held in security conditions appropriate to these levels of risk.
The level of security necessary shall be reviewed at regular intervals throughout a person’s imprisonment.
As soon as possible after admission, prisoners shall be assessed to determine whether they pose a safety risk to other prisoners, prison staff or other persons working in or visiting prison or whether they are likely to harm themselves.
The following provisions apply to the separation of a prisoner from other prisoners as a special high security or safety measure:
1. Prisoners who are separated shall be offered at least two hours of meaningful human contact a day.
2. The decision on separation shall take into account the state of health of the prisoners concerned and any disabilities they may have, which may render them more vulnerable to the adverse effects of separation.
3. Separation shall be used for the shortest period necessary to achieve its objectives and shall be regularly reviewed in line with these objectives;
4. Prisoners who are separated shall not be subject to further restrictions beyond those necessary for meeting the stated purpose of such separation;
5. Cells used for separation shall meet the minimum standards applicable in these Rules to other accommodation for prisoners;
6. The longer a prisoner is separated from other prisoners, the more steps shall be taken to mitigate the negative effects of their separation by maximising their contact with others and by providing them with facilities and activities;
7. Prisoners who are separated shall be provided, as a minimum, with reading materials and the opportunity to exercise for one hour per day as specified for prisoners in Rule 27.1 and 27.2;
8. Prisoners who are separated shall be visited daily, including by the director of the prison or by a member of staff acting on behalf of the director of the prison;
9. When separation is adversely affecting a prisoner’s physical or mental health, action shall be taken to suspend it or to replace it with a less restrictive measure;
10. Any prisoner who is separated shall have a right of complaint in the terms set out in Rule 70.
The different categories of persons deprived of freedom shall be kept in separate places of deprivation of liberty or in different sections within the same institution, taking account of their sex, age, the reason for their deprivation of liberty, the need to protect the life and integrity of persons deprived of liberty or personnel, special needs of attention, or other circumstances relating to internal security.
In particular, arrangements shall be made to separate men and women; children and adults; the elderly; accused and convicted; persons deprived of liberty for civil reasons and those deprived of liberty on criminal charges. In cases of deprivation of liberty of asylum or refugee status seekers, and in other similar cases, children shall not be separated from their parents. Asylum or refugee status seekers and persons deprived of liberty due to migration issues shall not be deprived of liberty in institutions designed to hold persons deprived of liberty on criminal charges.
Under no circumstances shall the separation of persons deprived of liberty based on categories be used to justify discrimination, the use of torture, cruel, inhuman, or degrading treatment or punishment, or the imposition of harsher or less adequate conditions on a particular group. The same criteria shall be observed during transfers of persons deprived of liberty.
In accordance with international human rights law, appropriate and effective measures shall be adopted to prevent violence amongst persons deprived of liberty, or between persons deprived of liberty and the personnel.
In order to achieve that, the following measures shall be taken, amongst others:
a. Separate the different categories of persons deprived of liberty in conformity with the criteria set down in the present document;
On occasion, CPT delegations have found immigration detainees held in prisons. Even if the actual conditions of detention for these persons in the establishments concerned are adequate -which has not always been the case - the CPT considers such an approach to be fundamentally flawed. A prison is by definition not a suitable place in which to detain someone who is neither convicted nor suspected of a criminal offence.
Admittedly, in certain exceptional cases, it might be appropriate to hold an immigration detainee in a prison, because of a known potential for violence. Further, an immigration detainee in need of in-patient treatment might have to be accommodated temporarily in a prison health-care facility, in the event of no other secure hospital facility being available. However, such detainees should be held quite separately from prisoners, whether on remand or convicted.
The duty of care which is owed by a State to persons deprived of their liberty includes the duty to protect them from others who may wish to cause them harm. The CPT has occasionally encountered allegations of woman upon woman abuse. However, allegations of ill-treatment of women in custody by men (and, more particularly, of sexual harassment, including verbal abuse with sexual connotations) arise more frequently, in particular when a State fails to provide separate accommodation for women deprived of their liberty with a preponderance of female staff supervising such accommodation.
As a matter of principle, women deprived of their liberty should be held in accommodation which is physically separate from that occupied by any men being held at the same establishment. That said, some States have begun to make arrangements for couples (both of whom are deprived of their liberty) to be accommodated together, and/or for some degree of mixed gender association in prisons. The CPT welcomes such progressive arrangements, provided that the prisoners involved agree to participate, and are carefully selected and adequately supervised.
[...] Juveniles (whether on remand or sentenced) should as a rule not be held in institutions for adults but in facilities specially designed for this age group. The CPT considers that when, exceptionally, they are held in prisons for adults, juveniles should always be accommodated separately from adults, in a distinct unit. Further, adult prisoners should not have access to this unit. That said, the Committee acknowledges that there can be arguments in favour of juveniles participating in out-of-cell activities with adult prisoners, on the strict condition that there is appropriate supervision by staf. Such situations occur, for example, when there are very few or only one juvenile ofender in an establishment; steps need to be taken to avoid juveniles being placed de facto in solitary confnement.
Juveniles detained under criminal legislation should, in principle, not be held with juveniles deprived of their liberty on other grounds. Male and female juveniles who are placed in the same institution should be accommodated in separate units, although they may associate for organised activities during the day, under appropriate supervision. Special attention should be paid to the allocation of juveniles belonging to diferent age groups in order to accommodate their needs in the best way. Appropriate measures should also be taken to ensure adequate separation between these age groups in order to prevent unwanted
infuence, domination and abuse.
The European Rules for young ofenders state that young adult ofenders may, where appropriate, be regarded as juveniles and dealt with accordingly. This practice can be benefcial to the young persons involved but requires careful management to prevent the emergence of negative behaviour. In this respect, the CPT considers that a case-by-case assessment should be carried out in order to decide whether it is appropriate for a particular inmate to be transferred to an adult institution after reaching the age of majority (i.e. 18 years), taking into consideration the remaining term of his/her sentence, his/her maturity, his/her infuence on other juveniles, and other relevant factors.
he State shall ensure that detaining authorities hold pre-trial detainees separately from the convicted prison population. They shall also ensure that detaining authorities take the necessary measures to provide for the special needs of vulnerable groups/persons, in accordance with Part 7 of these Guidelines.
d. Safeguards for police custody and pre-trial detention
If police custody or pre-trial detention of a child is absolutely necessary:
ii. Children shall be detained separately from adults, unless it is in their best interest to be kept with family members also detained. Female children shall be held separately from male children unless it is in their best interest to be kept with family members also detained.
b. Safeguards for arrest and detention
If arrest, custody and pre-trial detention is absolutely necessary, women and girls shall:
ii. Be held separately from male detainees.
32.1. Prison staff shall ensure that good order, safety and security are maintained through a process of dynamic security and interaction with foreign prisoners.
32.2. Prison staff shall be alert to potential or actual conflicts between groups within the prison population that may arise due to cultural or religious differences and inter-ethnic tensions.
32.3. To ensure safety in prison, every effort shall be made to enhance mutual respect and tolerance and prevent conflict between prisoners, prison staff or other persons working or visiting the prison, who come from different backgrounds.
32.4. The nationality, culture or religion of a prisoner shall not be the determinative factors in the assessment of the risk to safety and security posed by such prisoner.